Glaucoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Glaucoma: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Dec 01, 2020

The eye is one of the most complex organs of the human body. Apart from the lens, retina, conjunctiva, and pupil, the eye houses optic nerves and blood capillaries. The complex structure of the human eye invites various optic ailments.

The lens regulates the amount of light entering the eye, and the optic nerves carry the impulse to the brain for the perception of images and visuals. The eye is delicate, and even the smallest of shock or injury might affect the underlying minute blood capillaries.

What is Glaucoma?

A glaucoma is a group of eye ailments in which the optic nerves are damaged. The optic nerves are essential for good vision, and the damage to the optic nerves might be caused by abnormally high pressure in the eyes. If not treated in time, you might lose the eyesight, and glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness for people above sixty years.

The increased pressure inside the eye is called intraocular pressure and can damage the optic nerves. The optic nerves are responsible for sending an impulse to the brain, where the impulse is perceived into images. Over time the intraocular pressure might corrode the optic nerve tissues, which might lead to permanent blindness.

Symptoms of Glaucoma

The most common type of glaucoma is open-angle glaucoma and is characterized with no symptom at all apart from the gradual loss of vision, which is irreversible. However, the first sign of glaucoma is the loss of side vision or peripheral vision.

The acute-angle glaucoma is also known as narrow-angle glaucoma and is a medical emergency. Secondary glaucoma is the side effect of eye injury or cataract operations or eye tumors. Rare cases of eye surgery or medicines like corticosteroids might also cause secondary glaucoma.

The other symptoms of glaucoma might be listed as:

  • Severe pain in the eyes.
  • Vomiting.
  • Nausea.
  • A sudden disruption in vision.
  • Sudden blurred vision.
  • Seeing colored rings around light sources.
  • Redness of the eyes.
  • Dilated pupil.
  • Headaches on the same side of the affected eye.
  • Blurry vision.

What Causes Glaucoma?

Aqueous humor is a clear fluid continuously made by the back of the eye. Once completed, the aqueous humor fills up the front of the eye and clears the channels through the cornea and iris. Once these channels are blocked or obstructed partially, the intraocular pressure in your eyes increases considerably. The increased pressure can damage the optic nerves and cause permanent loss to the eyesight.

Apart from the obstructing of channels, the eye pressure might increase due to dilating eye drops, restricted drainage in the eyes, medications, or application of steroids such as corticosteroids, high blood pressure, and low blood flow in the optic nerves.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Glaucoma tests are of various types, and the ophthalmologist needs to perform a comprehensive eye examination to detect glaucoma symptoms. The signs of deterioration or vision can also help to diagnose glaucoma. A tonometry test is performed to check the intraocular pressure. The pachymetry test helps the ophthalmologist determine the cornea’s thickness as people with thin cornea are more prone to suffer from glaucoma.

Perimetry test of the visual field test is a measure to determine whether glaucoma has affected your vision by measuring the peripheral and central vision. Photographs of the optic nerve might also be taken to monitor any visible change and conduct a side-by-side comparison to detect glaucoma.

Once glaucoma is detected, glaucoma cure is mostly dependent on the level of reduction of intraocular pressure. Typically, treatment starts with the administration of eye drops or pills. If the blocked channel increases the pressure inside your eyes, the ophthalmologist might suggest surgery to clear the path.

Closed-angle glaucoma is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention to reduce intraocular pressure at the earliest. A Laster treatment process called laser peripheral iridotomy might also be performed to produce minute holes in the iris and increase fluid movement.

When to Visit the Ophthalmologist?

Since glaucoma does not have prominent symptoms, aged persons are more prone to reduced eye fluid and glaucoma. Any changes in vision or eye irritation may be reported to the ophthalmologist. If you are looking for glaucoma treatment in Glendale, CA, Glendale Eye Medical Group is present to provide high-quality treatment. Over fifty years in business, we include advanced technology in all treatments. You can book an appointment and experience the difference.

818-956-1010 Book Now
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